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We are now going to have a look at how we deal with serious bleeding and the complications and particular problems that we can have with serious bleeding. First of all, remember the temperature. The clotting process of the body requires the body to be as near as normal body temperature as possible, 37 degrees, for the clotting process to work efficiently and effectively. So, we have got three different types of bleed. We have got capillary bleed. Capillary bleed is where we tend to get gravel rash or just the top surface of the skin is burnt and you get that capillary ooze. You will see small little pinpricks of blood starting to come to the surface until they actually meet and form a little bit of a stream of blood. Minor damage, but quite often can be severe bleeds and can be a high risk of infection. So we need to keep that area clean, control the bleed and dress it appropriately. We have then got venous bleeding. The venous side of the heart is the least pressure. So, although we still bleed very heavily, we don't tend to spurt or spray with venous bleeding.

But again, remember, it can be serious and again, we have got the risk of infection so we need to be careful. And then finally, we have got the arterial bleed, the one that we all panic about and we all worry about. Arterial bleeding is high pressure. Every time the heart pumps, we will get a spray or a spurt of blood from the wound itself. And with an arterial bleed, also remember that we can lose up to a litre of blood per minute with a decent arterial severance. So we can lose a lot of blood very, very quickly and it can turn very fast into a cardiac arrest or a fatal situation if we don't bring it under control at speed. Remember, there are a number of things that affect how we deal with bleeds: Whether there is something embedded into the wound, whether it's clean, whether it's dirty, can we get at it, where about is it? Never assume anything, always track the blood trail back. If you get blood on your gloves, where did the blood come from?

There is no point assuming it came from the top of the chest when it may have come from the neck or when it comes from the ankle, it may have come from further up the leg and clothing will conceal and hide. And we will look at blood absorption into different surfaces in a separate video. Track it back, find the area. We need to then know how big it is, how big the wound is, how deep it is, what area of the body is involved, whether it's venous, arterial or capillary. And then we start deciding on how we are going to treat it. The most important thing is to elevate where possible because the blood doesn't like running uphill and if we elevate the limb, bleeding will automatically start to reduce because the blood doesn't pump uphill as well as it does downhill. So always keep it elevated. Pressure. We need to apply pressure to the wound site itself. The pressure pushes blood from the capillary bed and again reduces the bleeding dramatically.

So with elevation and compression straight away, we have massively reduced the blood flow. We need to know how big the wound is, so we need to actually have a look at it, expose it, cut the clothing. Let's have a look of what we are really dealing with. Once we have decided how big it is, we need to pick an appropriate sized compression bandage. All first aid kits comprise of multiple different sizes of compression bandages. The bandage needs to be big enough to cover the wound itself. It will absorb quite a lot of blood but it needs to be big enough to cover the wound. Remember, if one compression bandage bleeds through, we apply a second bandage over the top. The second bandage bleeds through, then we take all bandages off and re-evaluate the wound because if two haven't worked, three, four, five and six aren't gonna work either and we need to find another means to slow the bleed down.